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Experimental Investigation of Superheated Electrolysis and the exploration of Adiabatic Compression in Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems

Hydraulic systems use a incompressible fluid, such as water. Pneumatic systems use a compressible fluid, such as air.

Pascal's law is a hydrostatic principle that states when there is an increase in galactic butterflypressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal increase in pressure at every point in that fluid, which is transmitted at the same rate in all directions.

In a Hydraulic system using Water as the incompressible fluid, Pressure is directly proportional to Force applied and inversely proportional to Area. It is this relationship that allows the principle of mechanical advantage to be exploited.

Pressure = Force x Area

A Pneumatic system using Air as the compressible gas is governed by the Combined Gas Law, which combines Charles's Law, Boyles's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law. The relationship between the variables can be stated as: 

The ratio between the pressure-volume product and the temperature of a system remains constant.

and mathematically is expressed as:

( Pressure x Volume ) / Temperature = Constant

P V / T = k

Change in the system can be calculated by:

P1 V1 / T1 = P2 V2 / T2

where 1 indicates starting conditions and 2 indicates final conditions.

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Many people have begun using waste oil as a less expensive way to produce energy. Waste oil can be described as oil after it has been used once. The detailed definition would state that waste oil is any petroleum based or synthetic oil that has become unsuitable for its original purpose because of handling or use. After being used, oil contains impurities and begins to use its original characteristics that made it potent as a fuel source.

Consumption of Oil Around the World

oil-usageOil consumption is a big issue today. Many countries use a great deal of oil on a daily basis, with the United States being the highest with 20,680,000 barrels per day in 2007. China came in at 7,578,000 barrels per day and Japan with 5,007,000 the same year. Russias 2007 consumption was measured at 2,858,000 and India was at 2,722,000 daily barrels.

To appreciate how those numbers of grown over time, take a look at 2001s barrels per day statistics. Just six years earlier, the United States as at 19,650,000 barrels per day. China was listed at 4,570,000 barrels, Russia at 2,595,000 and India was around 2,130,000. While these countries went up, Japan went down with at 5,290,000 barrels per day. On a world scale, that is significant consumption of a non-renewable resource. That also means a great deal of waste oil production throughout the globe.

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Nikola Tesla, the inventor of the Tesla Turbine, determined that there were three key points to achieving maximum efficiency with the turbine:

  • Inlet Nozzle
  • Disk Geometry
  • Outlet Nozzle

The Inlet Nozzle:

The inlet nozzle is thought to be the most important


component with a complex shape that is needed to achieve maximum conversion of gas pressure to shaft horsepower. The two functions of an inlet nozzle include: conversion of gas pressure into gas kinetic energy; and directing that gas kinetic energy through parallel

streams and into the rotor, or turbine disk pack.

There are a variety of nozzle designs. The traditional convergent-divergent nozzle is seen in Figure 1.

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complex engineAll engines work generally the same way. A turbine is rotated and used to generate an energy charge. The question of fuel comes in when figuring out how to get the turbine to move to create that current. A traditional engine is called a combustion engine. This means that a fuel source is burned, creating a small explosion which gives off energy that is used to turn the turbine. Most people are familiar with gasoline or diesel powered engines, such as those used in cars and trucks. These engines are not the most efficient, but are currently the least expensive to produce and maintain, at least for the short term.

Gasoline sparks faster and easier than diesel engines, particularly in cold climates and are relatively quieter and cleaner. Diesel is considered to be safer than gas because it is less flammable. It also has a longer storage life. Diesel engines are thought to be more reliable because they do not possess an electronic ignition system making them less expensive to maintain. They also have to potential to burn recycled fuel, such as vegetable oil which is more environmentally friendly and sustainable.

However, both diesel and gasoline engines emit toxic fumes that are hazardous to inhale and to the environment. The refining method is similar for both products as well. They are both formed from crude oil which is either shipped by the barrel from the Middle East or tapped in locations such as Texas and Alaska, causing environmental harm at the drill site. The crude oil is separated into different fractions by distillation which breaks down the hydrocarbon molecule structures, again releasing toxic fumes.simple design tesla turbine

The tesla turbine is unique in that it is not traditional in appearance or function. Instead of blades and pistons, it has a series of disks attached to a shaft within a chamber. Fluid is passed through the chamber, turning the disks, rotating the shaft and generating energy. This design provides much more efficiency due to fewer moving parts and is not dependent on crude oil market fluctuations. It can be run on a variety of different liquids, such as the more sustainable waste fuel which is reused from industrial cooking oil.

This is the very thing the Sea Bird Adventure team is working to develop. The tesla turbine has never been applied to a marine vessel and we hope to retrofit the Sea Bird Adventure with this more sustainable form of propulsion.

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Powering the Sea Bird is no small task. The ship must be fitted with a suitable motor system that adheres to the refitting projects strict requirements for green operation. The current engine requires a great deal of diesel so to ensure sustainability, a G50 Baldor Reliance AC VC motor has been selected because it offers the right amount of power for the ships everyday operation using electricity.

Why is the Right Motor So Important?

There are obvious reasons why selecting the right motor for the Sea Bird is so important. Basic functionfs 177 akl 330 d requires a motor that can manage the immense size and demands of a sea-going ship. However there is another underlying reason that may not be quite as obvious.

The Sea Bird is not just a project focus on a single group of people. Its success could bring on an evolution in the way we power marine craft and land based machinery. The Seabird will be implementing many new and old concepts that have the potential to operate to optimum standards without producing excessive waste or burning non-renewable resources. If the Sea Bird can prove the validity of the new green technology it will be using, many others could get on board.